Approximately 20 to 25 percent of men develop orchitis at some point in their lives. It is a painful, inflammatory condition that occurs in the scrotum. It can affect anyone between the ages of 14 and 35. It is most commonly caused by infection, but it can also be caused by physical trauma or surgery. It is often associated with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and mycoplasma.
Symptoms of epididymitis can include testicular pain, scrotal swelling, and redness. In some cases, the pain can spread to the groin area and edema can occur. In other cases, the pain may only affect the testicle. There may also be a discharge in the urethra. The pain may be difficult to control, and the patient may develop a high fever. Typically, the patient will be prescribed pain medicine and ice packs. If the pain is severe, narcotics may be prescribed for a short time. The doctor may also send a swab of the discharge to the lab. Typically, the lab will perform a urine test to determine if there is an infection or other cause of the pain.
Orchitis is most often caused by infection. Several different bacteria, viruses, and fungi can cause orchitis. Chlamydia is the most common cause of epididymitis in young men. Other bacteria, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, have also been associated with orchitis.
Infections of the urinary tract are also common causes of orchitis. Urine can be infected, and the irritation of the urinary tract can lead to a burning pain when passing urine. The patient may also develop nausea, vomiting, and a sick feeling. If the infection does not improve with treatment, the patient may be hospitalized. During treatment, a catheter may be placed in the bladder to drain the bladder. The patient may also be given antibiotics. These antibiotics are often the best treatment for bacterial infections.
In addition to bacterial infections, immune-mediated orchitis can occur. In this case, a break down in the blood-testis barrier results in the spread of infection to the testicle. There may also be tubular degeneration and irreversible damage to the germinal epithelium. This can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and there is a high risk of permanent damage to the testicles.
There are two types of orchitis: acute and chronic. Acute orchitis usually occurs within a few days and lasts for no more than six weeks. In acute orchitis, the testes swell, and the patient may experience intense pain. The patient may also have a fever, chills, and malaise. In chronic orchitis, the testes may not swell, but the pain may continue to be present. In this case, the patient may also be diagnosed with a condition called testicular torsion.
Chronic orchitis is not as serious, but it can cause permanent damage to the testicles. Acute orchitis usually improves with treatment. If the testes do not recover, surgical removal may be needed. It is important to treat this condition, as it can have a negative impact on fertility in some men.