Generally, urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria, which are usually present in the urine. Bacteria can also be transmitted through sexual intercourse. However, most urinary tract infections are benign and can be treated. The treatment depends on the bacteria that caused the infection and the symptoms of the patient. In most cases, the infection can be treated with antibiotics.
Some people may require hospitalization for treatment. Depending on the severity of the infection, the patient may be given intravenous antibiotics. The treatment plan will depend on the patient’s age, medical history, and the type of bacteria that caused the infection. Small children may need to be treated in the hospital with injectable medicines.
The most common bacterial cause of urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli. Other gram negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella and Staphylococcus coagulase negative species, also cause UTI. Other factors that increase the risk of UTI include pregnancy, sexual intercourse, and hormonal contraceptives.
Urinalysis is the most common test used to diagnose UTI. Urinalysis is the process of collecting a sample of urine and testing it for bacteria, yeast, and pus. The urine sample is then examined under a microscope to determine the type of bacteria causing the infection.
Another test that may be useful is cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a surgical procedure that allows a doctor to examine the inside of the urethra and bladder. This test is used to diagnose recurrent UTIs and can determine the cause of the infection. The procedure is performed by inserting a thin tube with a lens inside the urethra. The doctor then sees the inside of the bladder, urethra, and ureters.
The first line of treatment for urinary tract infections is antibiotics. Antibiotics are usually prescribed based on the type of bacteria in the urine and the symptoms of the patient. The course of antibiotics will depend on the symptoms, the type of bacteria in the urine, and the patient’s medical history. For women who are pregnant or have other risk factors, the course of antibiotics will be tailored to the specific situation.
If there is a history of repeated UTIs, the patient may be prescribed an ultrasound scan to determine the cause of the infection. A CT scan can also be used. The scan may be used to check for other abnormalities in the urinary tract.
If a patient is unable to void, he or she may be given a catheter to drain the urine. During a catheter’s life, the catheter must be kept clean and free of bacteria and other foreign bodies. If the catheter is not working, the patient may be treated with intravenous antibiotics or close monitoring.
Urine sensitivity tests can also be used to diagnose urinary tract infections. The urine sensitivity test determines the bacteria that are present and helps the doctor choose the most effective treatment. Other tests may be used if the patient has underlying abnormalities or other health issues that require further testing.